Understanding My Results

Wet Chemistry

Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF)
Reflects the amount of carbohydrates not soluble by acid detergent.

The residue remaining after complete combustion at 500 degrees to 600 degrees C of a feed or feed product during proximate analysis.

Crude Protein (CP)
The content of nitrogen in a feed, multiplied by a factor (usually 6,25, since most proteins contain about 16% N) the provide an estimate of protein content’ both non-protein N (amino acids, amines, ammonia, etc.) and true protein may be present.

Crude Fiber (CF)
the insoluble carbohydrates remaining in a feed after boiling in acid and alkali during proximate analysis; this fraction represents the poorly digested part of a feed by animals.

Dry Matter (DM)
Portion of a feed remaining after water is removed, usually expressed as a percent.

Fat (Ether Extract Method)
The fractions of a feed or feed product that is soluble in a fat solvent such as ethyl ether and removed by extraction during proximate analysis.

Fat (Acid Hydrolysis Method)
A chemical process whereby a fat compound is broken down in to simpler units with the uptake of water.

Heat Damaged Protein Acid Detergent Insoluble Protein
The portion of crude protein (converted from nitrogen content) that is bound to the Acid Detergent Fiber portion of feed. Generally this is not available to the rumen although some breakdown may occur in the lower intestinal tract.

The amount of water in a feed.

Net Energy of Lactation (NEl)
The estimate of energy available to product milk. Units are in Mega calories per 100 lb. feed DM.

Net Energy of Gain (NEg)
The estimate of energy available to produce a gain in weight. Value is lower that NEl or NEm because the energy applied to gain is used less efficiently.

Net Energy of Maintenance (NEm)
The estimate of energy available to maintain the animal in it’s current body condition.

Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF)
Used in formulating Dry Matter intake. Nutritionists use NDF in determining the rumen fill. Greater NDF results in lesser intake.

A potentially toxic compound found in forages produced under stressful conditions such as drought.

Non Protein Nitrogen. Additives such as urea or ammonia that can be added to a feed and will be incorporated into amino acids by rumen microorganisms.

A measure of acidity / alkalinity. Good silage should have a pH between 3.8 and 5.0.

Protein Solubility
The percent of crude protein that is soluble in a buffer solutions; it readily breaks down in the rumen.


Calcium (Ca)
Macro mineral. Required as structural component of the skeleton.

Copper (Cu)
Trace mineral. Contained in enzyme systems.

Iron (Fe)
Trace mineral.

Magnesium (Mg)
Macro mineral.

Manganese (Mn)
Trace mineral.

Molybdenum (Mo)
Trace mineral.

Phosphorus (P)
Macro mineral. Required as structural component of the skeleton.

Potassium (K)
Macro mineral. Function is acid-base balance.

Selenium (Se)
Trace mineral.

Sodium (Na)
Macro mineral.

Sulfur (S)
Macro mineral.

Zinc (Zn)
Trace mineral. Contained in enzyme systems.

Stearns DHIA Laboratories
825 12th Street South, PO Box 227
Sauk Centre, MN 56378-0227
320.352.2028 · 800.369.2697
Fax 320.352.6163 · Email


Monday-Friday: 8AM-4PM


Drop Off Location
Sauk Centre Front Entrance Drop Off
Open 24 Hours
Refrigerator Available for Water, Milk,
and Wet Feed Samples